The fifth pillar of Islam
5. Pilgrimage to Mecca—Hajj
Greater Pilgrimage (Hajj)
and minor Pilgrimage (Umrah)
Hajj and Umrah are obligatory once in a lifetime for anyone who is:
4) Free, not a slave;
5) Has the means to perform
it with respect to being able to afford its provisions and conveyance.
If someone procrastinates in making Hajj until he dies while he had the wealth
and wherewithal to make it, someone should make the Hajj and Umrah on behalf of
the deceased from the deceased’s wealth.
Hajj of a non-muslim is not correct nor is the Hajj of an insane person. But a
child or a slave can make it, even though it does not count as their obligatory Hajj
for them. If a poor person borrows money to make Hajj, his Hajj is sound.
If a person makes Hajj on behalf of someone else while he himself has not yet
made his own Hajj, he will have that Hajj count as his own Hajj.
It is Sunnah for the person who wishes to enter the state of Ihram to
take a bath, wear perfume, take off all stitched clothing and wear two clean white
unstitched pieces of cloth, one which covers the lower half of the body and the
other draped over the shoulders.
One who intends only Umrah should proclaim, ‘“‘Labbaik Allahumma Umratan’’
(Here I am at your service for obedience O Allah for Umrah),
Those that intend Hajj should say the same but substitute “‘Hajjan’”’ for
“Umratan’’, and those that intend both should say, *‘Hajjan wa Umrah’’.
If he fears that something will prevent him from completing his Hajj rites, he
should make a condition in this proclamation by saying: ‘“‘fa inn habasani haabis fa
mahalli haithu habastanv’’ (If | am prevented by any obstacle, my place of ending
is wherever I am obstructed).
Types of Hajj:
The person who intends Hajj has three choices: Tamattu’, Ifraad or Qiran.
1) The best 1s to make Tamattu’ wherein one enters the state of Jhram for the Umrah
in the months of Hajj (Shawwaal, Dhul-Qa’dah and Dhul-Hijjah) and then leaves the
state of [hram. He then enters the state of Jhram again for Hajj (in the same year), and
completes its rites.
2) [fraad is to make [hram for Hajj alone. 3) Qiran is to combine
both Hajj and Umrah in one [hram, or to enter into [hram for the Umrah first and
then to add Hajj to it before one begins the circumambulation of the Umrah.
Once the one intending Hajj is on his conveyance for travel [after entering the
state of Ihram], he should say: “‘Labbaik Allahumma Labbaik. Labbaika la-
Sharika laka labbatk. Innal-Hamda wan-ni’mata laka wal-Mulk. La Shartka lak”
(Here Iam at Your service, O Allah! Here I am at Your service. Here I am at Your
service, you have no partner, Here I am at Your service, O Allah. Verily, all the
praise, all the grace belongs to You, and the dominion. You have no partner). This
is called the Talbiyah.
It is more rewarding that one repeats this frequently with a raised voice.
However, women should not raise their voices in the Talbiyah.
There are nine things that are prohibited while in the state of Ihram:
1) Cutting the hair;
2) Clipping the nails;
3) For the male, wearing stitched clothes.
One who does not find an unstitched garment to wear is excepted from this. In such
a case he may wear pants. Also, if he does not find sandals, he then can wear Khuff
(leather socks) after cutting off what might cover the ankles. He need not offer any
compensation for this;
4) Covering the head;
5) Wearing perfume on the body or
clothes; 6) Hunting wild game ordinarily allowed;
7) Contracting a marriage; this is
impermissible, but there is no compensation due if done.
8) Touching the wife as
foreplay to sexual activity; if one does this, he must compensate by slaughtering a
sheep, fasting for three days, or feeding six needy people.
9) Having sexual
intercourse; if this happens while one is in the state of lhram, the Hajj is
invalidated. He must complete his Hajj and perform it again the following year,
along with slaughtering a camel and distributing the meat to the needy of Makkah.
If one does this after leaving the state of Jhram and completing the first section of the Hajj rites, his Hajj is not invalid but he must compensate that sin by
slaughtering a camel. If he has sexual intercourse during Umrah, that Umrah is null
and void and he must slaughter a sheep and make the Umrah over again. Only
sexual intercourse makes the Hajj and Umrah totally null and void.
#What applies to men applies also to women in respect of the Hajj rites except that women may wear stitched clothing. However, they are not allowed to wear a complete Burgqa’ or Nigab (face veils with openings for eyes) and gloves during Ihram.
Offering Fidyah (Compensation):
The fidyah is of two types:
1) Fidyah wherein
one can choose from a variety of options: This includes fidyah for cutting the hair,
clipping the nails, wearing stitched clothes or covering the head. A person may
choose as fidyah; fasting three days, feeding six needy people each a kilo and a half
of staple food, or slaughtering a sheep. The fidyah for killing of a wild animal by
hunting is to slaughter the like of what he killed from cattle. If not, one must pay the
price of the animal according to its value [and that is to be given in charity].
2) Fidyah wherein one has to follow a set order when offering fidyah: This covers
the case of the fidyah of the person making Tamattu’ and Qiran who must slaughter a sheep, and the fidyah of the person who had sexual intercourse while in a state of Thram who must slaughter a camel. If the person making Tamattu’ and Qiran and the person who has sexual intercourse while he was in /hram do not find the
specified animal or cannot afford to buy it, they must fast for three days in the Hajj
time and seven when they return to their homes. The fidyah (compensation) may
only be distributed to the needy of Makkah.
When the person performing the Hajj or Umrah enters
Makkah, he says the legislated supplication. After that, he begins the
circumambulation (Tawaaf) of Umrah, if he is making the Tamattu’ and the Tawaaf
of arrival, if he is making Ifraad or Qiran.
One begins his Tawaaf with his right shoulder uncovered and a part of the cloth
over his left shoulder (/dtiba’), and starts at the Black Stone (al-Hajr al-Aswad).
‘ A woman can cover her face in front of non-mahram men after entering ihraam with part of her garment, lowering it from the top of her head over her face, or she may wear any other type of face covering, without committing the forbidden action of wearing nigaab.
One should touch the Black Stone with his right hand or kiss it if possible.
Otherwise, one simply points to it and says “Bismillah” (in the name of Allah).
He repeats this in every round. Keeping his left side to the Ka’bah, he
circumambulates seven times, walking quickly with short steps (Ramal) in the first
three rounds to the best of his ability. When he passes the Yemeni Corner he
touches it with his right hand if possible.
In the space between the Yemeni Corner and the Black Stone one should say,
‘“Rabbana aatina fid-dunya hasanatan wa fil-aakhirati hasanatan wa gqina
adhaban-naar” (O our Lord, grant us the best in this life and the best in the next
life and protect us from the punishment of the Fire) (Al-Baqarah 2:201).
He may supplicate with whatever he wishes during the rounds. Then he should
perform a two Rak’ah prayer behind the Station of Abraham (Magaam Ibraheem),
if he is able to do so, reading in them Surat al-Kafiroon  and Surat al-Ikhlaas
. Then he should drink as much water as he can from the well of Zamzam.
Afterwards, he should return to the Black Stone and touch it with his right hand if
possible and supplicate at the Multazam (the area of the Ka’bah between the Black
Stone and the Door). Then he goes for Sa’i (going earnestly between Safa and
Marwah) by first going to the mount of Safa, ascending it saying, “Abda bima
Bada‘ Allahu bih” (I begin with what Allah began).
Then he recites the verse of Allah, the meaning of which is: “Indeed, Safa
and Marwah are among the symbols of Allah, so whoever makes Hajj or Umrah to
the House there is no blame upon him for proceeding between them. And whoever
does good voluntarily, then indeed Allah is All-Appreciative, All-Knowing” (2:158).
He then says “Allahu Akbar’ and says “‘Laa Iaaha Ill-Allah,” and faces the
Ka’bah and raises his hands and supplicates.
Then he descends and walks until he reaches the green marker. When he reaches
the green marker, he runs as fast as he can to the next green marker. After that, he
walks until he reaches al-Marwah, whereupon he repeats the same ritual as he did
He then descends and repeats the same as he did in the first round until he
completes seven rounds, one round being from one mount to the other. After that,
he shaves or shortens his hair, shaving being the best, except in the Umrah of
Tamattu’ since he will make the Hajj afterwards.
As for the person making Qiran or Ifraad, he is not allowed to Tawaf al-
Ifaadah, until after he throws the pebbles at the Pillar of Agabah (Jamrat-ul-
Agabah) on the Day of Eid. The woman is like the man except that she does not
walk fast in the walking of circumambulation or between Safa and Marwah.”
The Description of Hay:
On the 8th of Dhul-Hijjah (Yawm at-Tarweyah), if the
pilgrim was staying in Makkah, he enters into the state of Ihram and heads to
‘ The corner before the Black Stone.
~ A woman does not get her head shaven upon the completion of Umrah or Hajj. Instead, she cuts a
fingertip length of hair from her entire head.
Mina to spend the night of the 9″ (the Islamic day begins at sunset) there.
The next morning, when the sun of the 9″ of Dhul-Hijjah rises, he commences
towards the plain of Arafat. He combines Salat-ud-Duhr and Salat-ul-Asr in them
shortened form and performs them at the time of Salat-ud-Duhr.
A pilgrim can stay in any place in the plain of Arafat except for the valley of
Uranah. He should supplicate saying “Laa Ilaaha Illa-llah wahdahu la shareeka
lah, lahul-mulku walahul-hamdu, wahuwa ala kulli shay‘in qadeer’ (There is
none that has the right to be worshipped except Allah, to Him belongs all
praise and sovereignty and He is omnipotent over all things). He should strive
earnestly in invocation seeking repentance and yearning sincerely to come closer to
Allah. When the sun sets, he proceeds towards Muzdalifah with calmness and
dignity, saying the Talbiyah and remembering Allah.
When he reaches Muzdalifah, he combines Salat-ul-Maghrib and Salat-ul-Isha and shortens them. Then he spends the night there.
He makes Salat-ul-Fajr in the first of its tme and remains making supplications until
the light of day appears before the sun has actually risen. After that, he sets off and when he reaches the valley of Muhassir, he should hurry through it if he is able to do so.
When the pilgrim comes to Mina, he begins by stoning the Greater Pillar
(Jamrat-ul-Agabah) with pebbles (bigger than a chickpea and smaller than a hazel
nut). He says ‘‘Allahu Akbar’ as he throws each pebble and raises his hand.
It is conditional that the pebbles fall inside the ring around the pillar even if they
don’t reach the actual pillar. He discontinues the Talbiyah with the first throw of the
pebbles. Then he shaves his head or shortens his hair, shaving being better. Then he
slaughters his animal for sacrifice.
With his stoning and shaving (or shortening) his hair, he departs from the state of
Thram and enters the first state of “dissolving the restrictions” (at-Tahallul al-
Awal), in which everything that was restricted to him is now allowed, except sexual
intercourse which remains prohibited. Then he proceeds to make the Tawaaf al-
Ifaadah, which is obligatory for the completion of Hajj.
Then he performs Sa’i between Safa and Marwah if he is making Tamattu’ or if he did not do the Sa’i when he made the Tawaaf of arrival.
Once he completes this, he is free from all restrictions including sexual
intercourse (at-Tahallul ath-Thani). He then returns to Mina and spends the two
nights of Tashreeg (the 11″ and 12″ of Dhu’l-Hijjah) which are compulsorily,
throwing the seven pebbles at each of the three pillars (Jamaraat) when the sun has
passed its zenith, supplicating after each throwing, He begins with the first Jamrah,
then the middle, pausing a short distance after each to supplicate and then the
One does not pause to supplicate after throwing the Jamrat-ul-Aqabah. He
throws pebbles on the second day in a similar manner. If he wishes to leave before
the setting of the sun on the second day, the twelfth of Dhul-Hijjah, he may.
However, if the sun sets while he is still in Mina, he must stay for the third day also
and throw the stones of the third day — except if the crowd thwarts his quick movement out of Mina and the sun sets. In this case he may still leave if he had
intended to do so, even if he actually exits after the setting of the sun.
The person making Qiran is like the person making /fraad except that he must
Slaughter a sacrificial animal, just as the person making TYamattu’ must also
slaughter a sacrificial animal.
Those who wish to travel back to their homes should not leave until they make
the Farwell Tawaaf (Tawaaf al-Wadaa’), making it their last rite in Makkah, except
for a woman experiencing menses or postpartum bleeding, since she is absolved
from this obligation.
If one becomes preoccupied by some business after making Tawaaf al-Wadaa’,
he must make the Tawaaf al-Wadaa’ again. Those who leave without making the
Tawaaf al-Widaa’ should return to Makkah if they are nearby, and those that have
gone too far must slaughter a sacrificial animal as fidyah.
The Pillars (Arkan) of Hajj Are Four:
1) [hram, and this includes the intention
to make Hajj;
2) Stopping (al-Wugoof) at Arafat;
3) Circumambulation of the
Ka’ bah (Tawaaf al-Ifaadah);
4) Walking between Safa and Marwa (Sa’i).
The Obligations (Waajibaat) of Hajj Are Seven:
1) Making the /hram from the
assigned places (al-Migaat);
2) Staying at Arafat until the night;
3) Spending the night
at Muzdalifah until after the middle of the night;
4) Spending the nights at Mina during
the days of Tashreeqg;
5) Throwing the pebbles at the Jamaraat;
6) Shaving the head
or cutting the hair;
7) The Farewell Tawaaf (Tawaaf al-Wadaa’).
The Pillars (Arkan) of Umrah are Three:
(Tawaaf of Umrah);
3) Sa’i of Umrah.
The Obligations of Umrah are Two:
1) /Jhram from the assigned places (al-
2) Shaving the head or cutting the hair.
The person who leaves a pillar (Arkan) will not have his Hajj or Umrah complete
and it becomes null and void. Someone who leaves an obligation must compensate
for it by slaughtering a sacrificial animal. Someone who leaves a Sunnah of the Hajj
or Umrah has no fault against him.
The Conditions of Performing (Tawaaf) are Thirteen:
2) Being sane;
3) Determined intention;
4) Passing of the beginning of the time of Tawaaf;
Covering one’s private parts for the one who is able;
6) Cleanliness from both the greater and lesser states of impurity, except for a child;
7) Completing seven rounds and being certain that one has done seven;
8) Making the Ka’bah on the left side; he who does otherwise must repeat the circumambulation;
9) Not going backwards while walking.
10) Walking, by the one who is able;
11) Making the rounds continuously;
12) Making the rounds inside the Masjid al-Haram;
13) Starting the rounds from the Black Stone.
The acts of the Sunnah for Tawaaf include touching the Black Stone with the
right hand and kissing it, saying “Allahu Akbar’ near it, touching the Yemeni
Corner with the right hand, having one’s right shoulder uncovered (/dtibaa’) and
walking quickly with short steps (Ramal) at the time this is supposed to be,
supplicating and remembering Allah in the Tawaaf, getting close to the Ka’ bah, and making the two Rak’ah afterwards.
The Conditions (Shuroot) of Proceeding between Safa and Marwah (Sa’i) are Nine:
2) Being sane;
4) Making the rounds continuously;
5) Walking, by the one who is able;
6) Completing seven rounds;
7) Covering the
distance between the two mounts;
8) Making it after a correct Tawaaf;
at as-Safa and completing at al-Marwah.
The acts of the Sunnah of the Sa’i include cleanliness from the lesser state of
impurity and any impurity, covering the private parts, mentioning Allah during the
Sa’i, running quickly in the places where this should be done, climbing up on the
mounts, and performing the Sa’i directly after the Tawaaf.
Note: The best thing to do is to throw the stones at the Jamaraat on the same day. However, it is acceptable if one postpones one day’s throwing until the next day, or even all the throwing of the Tashreeg days until the last day.
Udhiya – The Sacrificial Animals offered for those not making Hajj. To slaughter a sacrificial animal is an emphasized Sunnah. The one who intends to slaughter should not cut his hair or clip his nails from the beginning of Dhul-Hijjah until he slaughters his sacrificial animal.
The Slaughtering of a Sacrificial Animal for the Newborn. This is a Sunnah. Two sheep should be slaughtered for a boy and one for a girl.
Slaughtering on the seventh day after the birth is best. It is also Sunnah to shave the newborn’s head and give in charity silver in the amount of the weight of that hair.
A Beneficial Note: Those who enter the Masjid of the Prophet (pbuh) should first make two Rak’ah of greeting the Masjid, then come to the Prophet’s (#2%) noble grave’ and, facing the grave with his back to the prayer direction (Qiblah), with humility and a heart full of respect and awe for the Prophet (#24) as if he is before him in view, say “‘As-Salamu alaika ya Rasulullah” (Peace be upon you, O Messenger of Allah); if he adds to this [by saying for example, “‘and the blessings of Allah’’], it is good.
He then moves to the right an arm length and says, “As-Salamu alaika ya Aba Bakr as-Siddeeq’ (Peace be upon you, O Abu Bakr the Truthful) and also, “As- Salamu alaika ya Umar al-Farug” (Peace be upon you, O Umar the Separator
between Truth and Falsehood) “Allahumma Ijzihima ’an Nabiyyihima wa anil-Islam khaira”’ (O Allah give them the good reward for following the Prophet and aiding Islam). Then he turns to the Qiblah, places the grave to his left”, and supplicates to Allah.
‘ The noble grave of the Prophet (gee) was originally outside the Masjid in the living quarters of his wife Aishah, ¢ and later expansions after the generation of the companions brought it into the premises of the mosque. The manner of visit, although not specifically mentioned in reports, is mentioned as an example because it helps avoid many of the common innovations that are done by the ignorant masses at his grave.
Thus he will be standing in the Rawdah, the blessed area between the grave of the Prophet (pbuh) and his Minbar, which he stated to be a garden (rawdah) from the gardens of Paradise.
For explaining the first pillar of Islam (Shahadah) Please, click here
For explaining the second pillar of Islam (Prayer) Please, click here
For explaining the Third pillar of Islam (Charity) Please, click here
For explaining the fourth pillar of Islam (Fasting) Please, click here
For explaining the fifth pillar of Islam (Pilgrimage) Please, click here
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